Who/What was the reason behind India’s partition into India and Pakistan?
June 3, 1947, in a joint conference with the Congress and the Muslim League, the last Viceroy of India, Louis Mountbatten, announced the partition of India. What followed was a period of absolute terror, which, by some estimates, saw more than a million killed, and over 14 million people forcibly relocated. It is important for us to face up to why this catastrophe occurred, if only to avert another. Who and what was directly responsible for that division into 2 nation India and Pakistan.
As colonisers, the British had followed a divide-and-rule policy in India. In the census they categorised people according to religion and viewed and treated them as separate from each other. The British based their knowledge of the people of India on religious texts and the intrinsic differences they found in them, instead of examining how people of different religions coexisted. They also were fearful of the potential threat from the Muslims, who were the former rulers of the subcontinent, ruling India for over 300 years under the Mughal Empire. To win them over to their side, the British helped establish the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh and supported the All-India Muslim Conference, both of which were institutions from which leaders of the Muslim League and the ideology of Pakistan emerged. As soon as the league was formed, Muslims were placed on a separate electorate. Thus, the separateness of Muslims in India was built into the Indian electoral process.
They also created an ideological divide between the Muslims and the Hindus of India during their long rule and could not see them fit together.
Also there's a believe that they could not digest the fact of United-India for it could be a possible future threat with all those resources. So not only they divided India and Pakistan, they also left other princely states an option to choose as independent countries. If it was not for Sardar Patel, we would even have this India but multiple small countries torn among themselves!
Jinnah’s personal political ambitions and his unforgiving nature for the cause of Pakistan. Wavell Plan and Series of other plans rejected by Jinnah.
1930s: Jinnah was willing to make a deal, he was ignored (Provincial Elections of 1937) 1940s: Muslims were solidly behind Jinnah; He now had no reason to cut a deal at all. In 1946 elections, Muslim League 114 out of 119 Seats reserved for Muslims in Bengal and 54 out of 66 seats reserved in United Provinces.
Muslim League’s Sole Agenda under Jinnah became "Creation of Pakistan". As Jinnah said during his campaigns: "Elections are the beginning of the end. If the Muslims decide to stand for Pakistan in the coming elections half the battle would have been won. If we fail in the first phase of our war, we shall be finished".
Obvious religious polarisation by The Muslim League
While the Indian National Congress was calling for Britain to quit India, in 1943 the Muslim League passed a resolution demanding the British divide and quit. There were several reasons for the birth of a separate Muslim homeland in the subcontinent, and all three parties — the British, the Congress, and the Muslim League — were responsible, but the religious polarisation by Muslim League was visible.
Also, their leaders too did want a separate state for rule as with United-India they could not see any possibility to chair any powerful post seeing The Congress as realistic hurdle.
According to the book written by his assassin Nathuram Godse, he wrote while he was serving his sentence in jail, he justified his killing of Gandhi as reason behind division of country and no more any valuable asset. He wrote that he actually admired Gandhi since his childhood. He really appreciated Gandhi for the freedom moment. But he did not like one thing about Gandhi. When Pakistan wanted to divide from India for political benefits of a few leaders, although majority of people of the nation did not like it, Gandhi supported and eventually got the whole country divided into two.
That was not all. Jinnah wanted 50 thousand crore rupees from India for Pakistan's development (I'm not sure about the exact figure). Now this was something none from India liked but Gandhi again pressed for issuing the money and he succeeded. That crossed the limit of tolerance for Godse, and he took the decision to kill Gandhi. Even after killing, Godse admired Gandhi for the other good things he did for the country.
I think people in India are misled by always showing them one side of the coin by certain politicians. Also, we have totally forgotten the real heroes (I don't mean Gandhi wasn't a hero, he was) who struggled a lot for independence and lost their lives.